What is Database Architecture

CLU: 1 Jun, 2023


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The database architecture is the foundation of any database system. It determines how data is stored and accessed and is the basis for all other components in a database system.

Database architecture describes the structure and behaviour of the database, including its physical organization. When designing a new database or evaluating an existing one, it’s essential to understand how data is organized, what types of relationships exist between tables, and how those relationships are used in query processing.

Database stores critical information and helps access data quickly and securely. Therefore, selecting the correct Architecture of DBMS helps in easy and efficient data management.

-Type of DBMS Architecture
-1 Tier Architecture

 Tier Architecture in DBMS is the simplest architecture of Database in which the client, server, and Database all reside on the same machine. A simple one tier architecture example would be anytime you install a Database in your system and access it to practice SQL queries. But such architecture is rarely used in production.-2 Tiere Architecture

2 Tier Architecture in DBMS is a Database architecture where the presentation layer runs on a client (PC, Mobile, Tablet, etc.), and data is stored on a server called the second tier. Two tier architecture provides added security to the DBMS as it is not exposed to the end-user directly. It also provides direct and faster communication.

The benefits of a 2-tier architecture include:

  • It is easy to understand: The database architecture is simple and easy to understand, which makes it a good choice for small businesses that do not have a large IT budget or staff. It also has fewer components than other architectures, making it less expensive to implement and maintain.
  • It reduces costs by eliminating redundant data storage: Because all the data is stored in one location, there is no need for expensive redundant backups or disaster recovery options. This can save companies money on hardware and software maintenance costs and personnel expenses for maintaining multiple databases at different locations or companies.
  • It scales easily with growing needs: This type of architecture can scale quickly by adding new servers without redesigning the entire system or moving any data around. As long as additional resources are available, you can add them without changing anything else in the architecture or disrupting operations.
-3 Tier Architecture

in DBMS is the most popular client server architecture in DBMS in which the development and maintenance of functional processes, logic, data access, data storage, and user interface is done independently as separate modules. Three Tier architecture contains a presentation layer, an application layer, and a database server.

3-Tier database Architecture design is an extension of the 2-tier client-server architecture. A 3-tier architecture has the following layers:

  1. Presentation layer (your PC, Tablet, Mobile, etc.)
  2. Application layer (server)
  3. Database Server

The Application layer resides between the user and the DBMS, which is responsible for communicating the user’s request to the DBMS system and send the response from the DBMS to the user. The application layer(business logic layer) also processes functional logic, constraint, and rules before passing data to the user or down to the DBMS.

Database Normalization

Database normalization is a set of rules for creating databases that are easy to use, reliable, and efficient. It ensures that data is logically organized and easily accessed without problems

Database normalization aims to prevent data from becoming corrupted or inconsistent and to avoid locking up all your data in one record.

Database normalization involves breaking down complex data structures into smaller pieces that are easier to work with and integrate with other system parts. This process can be done manually or through an automated tool like Oracle Data Masker (ODM), which uses rules-based methods to ensure that your data stays consistent during development and migration.

Data Models

The data model is the core of any database architecture. It defines the structure of your data, which you will use to store, retrieve and manipulate it. This structure includes information about what types of data are stored in the database, how that data is related to other pieces of data, and how it can be organized.

There are many different data models, but most fall into three categories: relational, hierarchical, and network. The properties of each type determine how well they work for specific applications.

Relational Data Model

The relational data model is based on set theory, which treats data as sets of tuples (rows or records) and attributes (columns or fields). Each tuple represents one record or row in a database table.

Hierarchical Data Model

A hierarchical data model organizes information into groups that branch out from a single root node, like a tree structure. In this model, each node has one parent and may have many children. Each child node inherits all the properties and relationships of its parent node; however, child nodes cannot have multiple parents themselves — they can only have one parent at any given time.

Network Data Models

A network data model represents relationships between entities as arcs and nodes. Whether relationships are one-way or two-way, you can draw these models using either directed or undirected arcs.

Key Takeaways

Database architecture is a lot like building a house: knowing where the walls go is essential before putting up drywall.

You need to know what kind of database you’re working with, what kind of data will be in it, how much data will be in it, and what kind of access you need to that data. This way, when you build your database, you’re not doing so blindly—you can lay down the foundation for success with your database architecture.


What is Database Architecture